- PHE102 Elementary Physics
- PHE104 General Physics
- PHE110 Elements of Electro-Optics
- PHE131 Mechanics
- PHE134 Elements of Physics
- PHE135 Experimental Physics (Mechanics and Optics Laboratory)
- PHE136 Optics and Electricity
- PHE203 Introduction to Astronomy
- PHE205 Mechanics
- PHE217 Electromagnetism
- PHE225 Modern Physics
- PHE226 Modern Physics
- PHE228 Electromagnetism
- PHE252 Marine Remote Sensing
- PHE255 Introduction to Space Science
- PHE260 Astronomy and The Evolving Universe
- PHE270 Introduction to Oceanography
- PHE280 Physics of Armaments
- PHE290 The Physics of Music
- PHE300 Modern Physics
- PHE302 Electromagnetic Waves
- PHE304 Quantum Mechanics
- PHE305 Classical Mechanics
- PHE307 Optics
- PHE332 Instrumentation I
- PHE333 Instrumentation II
- PHE350 Orbital Mechanics
- PHE352 Astronomy
- PHE355 Space Science Concepts and Applications
- PHE362 Ideas and Concepts of Modern Physics
- PHE364 Physics Laboratory
- PHE370 Introductory Synoptic Oceanography
- PHE403 Solid State Physics
- PHE412 Advanced Electromagnetic Theory
- PHE413 Nuclear Physics
- PHE415 Advanced Quantum Mechanics
- PHE420 Senior Project
- PHE440 Selected Topics in Physics
- PHE442 Introduction to Astrophysics
- PHE445 The Physics of the Space Environment
- PHE448 Spacecraft Mission Analysis and Design
- PHE450 Space Communications and Navigation
- PHE451 Senior Physics Laboratory
- PHE452 Remote Sensing
- PHE460 Computational Physics
- PHE462 Statistical and Thermal Physics
- PHE470 Physical Oceanography

## Courses 100-199

### PHE102 Elementary Physics

Topics in this introductory physics course will include: Newtonian mechanics including projectile motion, work and energy, acoustic, speed of sound, sound intensity, optics, lasers, mirrors, lenses, interference and diffraction.

- Note(s):
- For Arts students only. This course cannot be applied to a degree in Science or Engineering.
- Exclusion(s):
- PHE134
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE104 General Physics

Introduction to the principles of physics involved in Optics and Electricity, Mechanics.

#### First Semester, PHE104(1)

Optics: geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, images from mirrors and lenses, optical instruments. Wave nature, Huygens principle, interference and diffraction, phenomena in diffraction gratings and thin films and for analyzing the resolution of optical instruments.

Electricity: Coulomb's law, electric field and electric potential, motion of a charged particle, emf source, capacitance, current and resistance in electric circuits. Direct current circuits, Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's rules.

There is a lab associated with this course. The lab covers the basic principles of experimental investigation. In particular, the following topics are considered: the nature of measurement and associated errors, experiment planning and execution, the analysis of data errors, and the writing of scientific reports.

PHE104(1) and PHE136 are equivalent courses. A student cannot receive credit for both PHE104(1) and PHE136.

#### Second semester, PHE104(2)

Mechanics: kinematics, displacement, velocity, acceleration, motion in one and two dimensions, Newton's laws of motion, free-body diagrams, circular motion, friction, kinetic and potential energy, work, momentum, conserved quantities, rigid bodies, rotational motion, moment of inertia gravitation.

PHE104(2) and PHE131 are equivalent courses. A student cannot receive credit for both PHE104(2) and PHE131.

The first year physics lab (which is taken as part of PHE104) and PHE135 are equivalent academic activities. A student cannot receive credit for both the "First year physics lab" and PHE135.

- Note(s):
- For all students in the First Year of Science and Engineering.
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE101
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 4 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 2

### PHE110 Elements of Electro-optics

Introduction to the nature of light, reflection and refraction, lenses and spherical mirrors, optical instruments, Huygen's principle, interference of light and diffraction, polarization, the photoelectric effect, lasers and holography, condensed matter, band theory of solids, and semiconductor junctions and devices.

- Note(s) :
- Only offered through Distance Education
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE131 Mechanics

Intended for students who wish to proceed in science or engineering. The content consists of an introduction to the principles of physics through the study of mechanics. The course covers the following material: vectors, kinematics, motion in one and two dimensions, displacement, velocity, acceleration, curvilinear motion, relative velocities, Newton's laws of motion, free-body diagrams, friction, circular motion, work done by a force, kinetic energy, conservative and non-conservative forces, potential energy, work-energy theorem, conservation of energy, linear momentum and collisions in one and two dimensions, rotational motion of rigid bodies, angular velocity, angular acceleration, rotational kinetic energy, moments of inertia, torque, angular momentum, rolling motion, and the law of universal gravitation.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.
- Exclusion(s):
- PHE104(2)
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE134 Elements of Physics

The concepts of energy and its conservation are used as a vehicle to explore a number of areas in modern physics. The course is designed for students with a non-technical background. Topics include: motion and Newton's laws, work, energy, and the laws of energy conservation. Mechanical waves and sound, electromagnetic waves and light, atomic structure, states of matter, and the nucleus and nuclear energy.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.

Offered in English Only.

For Arts students only. This course cannot be applied to a degree in Science or Engineering. - Exclusion(s):
- PHE102
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE135 Experimental Physics

Basic principles of experimental investigation, in particular: the nature of measurement and associated errors, experiment planning and execution, analysis of data errors, and writing of a scientific report.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.

Course only offered on-site in a two week time block. Contact the Division of Continuing Studies for details. - Exclusion(s):
- PHE104 (Lab portion)
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 2 - 0
- Credit(s):
- 0.5

### PHE136 Optics and Electricity

Introduction to the principles of physics through the study of optics and electricity. The course will include the following topics:

Optics: geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, images from mirrors and lenses, optical instruments, wave nature, Huygen's principle, interference and diffraction, phenomena in diffraction grating and thin films, and analyzing the resolution of optical instruments.

Electricity: Coulomb's law, electric field and electric potential, motion of a charged particle, power source, capacitance, current and resistance in electric circuits, direct current circuits, Ohm's law, and Kirchhoff's rules.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through the Distance Education.
- Exclusion(s):
- PHE104(1)
- Note(s):
- Intended for students who wish to proceed in Science or Engineering.
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

## Courses 200-299

### PHE203 Introduction to Astronomy

This course provides a broad overview of modern astronomy, from the Earth and the Solar System to the limits of the Universe. The course consists of four study units: 1) Fundamentals of Astronomy; 2) Galaxies and Cosmology; 3) The Stars; and 4) The Solar System. The course is presented in online delivery mode with multimedia elements. It has both a descriptive and quantitative component. The descriptive component is visually based, with extensive use of the recent astronomical imagery. The quantitative component involves a series of problem-solving modules. These modules permit the student to carry out elementary calculations relevant to our interpretation of astronomical phenomena.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.

For Arts students only. This course cannot be applied to a degree in Science or Engineering. - Exclusion(s):
- PHE260
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE205 Mechanics

Oscillatory motion is studied including: undamped and damped harmonic motion, forced harmonic motion and resonance, damped forced oscillations, standing and progressive waves, conditions for static equilibrium in two and three dimensions, and introduction to fluid statics and fluid dynamics.

- Note(s):
- There is a lab associated with this course.
- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE226
- Semester:
- Usually Offered in the Fall & Winter
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 4 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE217 Electromagnetism

Course in intermediate electricity and magnetism beginning with concepts of electric and magnetic field and leading to Maxwell's equations in differential and integral form. The following topics are discussed: Alternating current circuits, complex impedance, RLC circuits, electric field, electric flux density, Gauss's law, electric potential, electric polarization, dielectrics and electric boundary conditions, magnetic field, magnetic flux density, magnetic vector potential, Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, magnetic dipole, magnetization and magnetic boundary conditions, Faraday's law, displacement current, and Maxwell's equations in their final integral and differential forms. There is a lab associated with this course.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104 and MAE226
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 4 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE225 Modern Physics

Concepts in physics developed from 1900 are discussed including: relativistic kinematics and dynamics, space and time, Doppler effect, momentum and energy, particle aspects of electromagnetic radiation, wave aspects of particles, Rutherford and Bohr models of the atom, development of the Schrodinger equation, application of the Schrodinger equation to a particle in a box and finite potential wells, and tunnelling. Models of the single and many electron atoms, molecules, nuclear structure and energetics of reactions. Radioactivity: alpha and beta decay, gamma emission.

- Note(s):
- There is a Lab associated with this course.
- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104
- Corequisite:
- MAE226
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 4 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE226 Modern Physics

This course is identical to PHE225 except students do not take the experimental physics lab.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE226
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 1 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE228 Electromagnetism

High level introduction to electromagnetism formulating the fundamental laws (Maxwell's Equations) in both integral and differential form, in vacuum and in material media. Major topics include: Gauss's law, electric potential, electric dipole, polarization, electric boundary conditions, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, electrostatic boundary-value problems, Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Maxwell's equations for static EM fields, magnetic vector potential, magnetic forces, the Hall effect, magnetization, magnetic materials, magnetic boundary conditions, magnetic circuits and magnetic energy.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104 and MAE226
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 2 - 5
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE252 Marine Remote Sensing

A survey of the satellite remote sensing of the ocean in the visible, thermal infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The source will focus on the underlying physics of the imaging process, the sensors and satellites used to exploit these processes, the derivation of basic geophysical and biophysical properties from the satellite data and imagery, and the integration of these properties into products useful for both strategic and tactical operations in oceanic regions of interest to the Canadian Forces. The course contains computer laboratory exercises in basic satellite image processing using both commercial scientific software, and software packages specific to maritime operations in the CAF.

- Note(s):
- 2 week intensive short course: 3 or 4 lecture hours, 2 lab hours per day for 10 days.
- Prerequisite(s):
- Permission of the Department
- Contact Hours:
- 36 - 20 - 0
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE255 Introduction to Space Science

Review of the history of space exploration and exploitation with emphasis on Canadian contributions and CAF uses. Overview of satellite mission types, content of near-Earth space. Physical characteristics of the space environment, solar activity, impact on hardware and human function; satellite design considerations. Basic physics of satellite orbits and manoeuvres. Interpretation of orbital ground tracks. Surveillance of space. Elements of space missions, satellite systems and subsystems: structure, electrical power, thermal control, propulsion and altitude control. Systems: sensors, telemetry, surveillance, navigation, meteorology, and remote sensing. Military and scientific satellite systems, and launch systems.

- Prerequisite(s):
- High School leaving Physics
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE260 Astronomy and the Evolving Universe

The course will discuss an understanding of our place in the Universe. Topics to be covered will include: solar system and its constituents, basic properties and evolution of stars and star systems, past, present and future structure of the Universe and topics of current interest.

- Note(s):
- For Arts students only. This course cannot be applied to a degree in Science or Engineering.
- Exclusion(s):
- PHE203
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE270 Introduction to Oceanography

Broad overview of ocean climate at a level suitable for the non-physics student. Course begins with an introduction to plate tectonics and ocean topography, followed by an examination of how the unique properties of seawater and their controlling budgets lead to the formation of distinct water masses, drive the global surface and deep-water circulation, and control the characteristics of sea ice, and ice climatology. Discussions focus on periodic phenomena (waves and tides) and coastal waters, including a regional description of the tides and currents, water masses and, where applicable, ice climatology specific to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Coasts of Canada.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE280 Physics of Armaments

A brief history of the role of Physics in the development of weapons: ancient times, modern wars, and nuclear times. Will receive special emphasis: ballistics, detonation, missiles, laser, radar, nuclear weapons receive special treatment, including nuclear principles, and the destructive and radiation effects of nuclear bombs. Certain aspects, such as ballistics and missiles, will be treated with the help of simulation computer programs.

- Note(s):
- Only offered through Distance Education.

For Arts students only. This course cannot be applied to a degree in Science or Engineering. - Contact Hours:
- 0 - 0 - 9
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE290 The Physics of Music

Introduction to the physics of music including: physical principles of vibrating systems, waves and resonance, physics of perception and measurement of musical sounds, hearing, intensity, loudness levels, tone quality, frequency and pitch, combination tones and harmony. Physical acoustics of musical instruments; string, brass, woodwind, percussion and keyboard instruments. Musical scales and temperament, auditorium and room acoustics.

- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 1

## Courses 300-399

### PHE300 Modern Physics

Atomic Physics: hydrogen atom, exclusion principle, electronic structure of atoms and the periodic table, atomic Spectra, and the Zeeman Effect.

Molecular Physics: Ionic and covalent binding, rotational and vibrational energies, and molecular spectra.

Nuclear Physics: Nuclear stability and binding energy, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion.

Statistical Physics: Classical and quantum distribution functions, Maxwell velocity distribution in classical gases, equipartition theorem, Blackbody radiation, electron gas, degenerate fermion and boson gases, and specific heat of solids and gases.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE225
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE302 Electromagnetic Waves

This course develops Maxwell's equations in differential form, and proceeds directly to the Helmholtz equation, describing the wave propagation of electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves are studied in free space, lossy media, conductors, and dielectrics, with particular attention to power transfer (Poynting vector), and the reflection and transmission of waves at interfaces (Fresnel equations). Propagation along waveguides and transmission lines are studied in detail. The modes of propagation in rectangular waveguides (transverse electric and transverse magnetic) are analyzed in terms of field amplitudes, phases, and attenuation. The guiding of waves along a transmission line is analyzed in terms of the propagation constant, characteristic impedance, input impedance, standing wave ratio, and power. Various applications of transmission lines are examined.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE217 or PHE228
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 1 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE304 Quantum Mechanics

Postulates of quantum mechanics, the Schrédinger equation, operators, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, superposition and stationary states, the one-dimensional square well, time independent perturbation theory, hydrogen atom, energy levels, angular momentum, magnetic moment, Stark effect, Zeeman effect, He, electron spin, Hartree-Fock approximation, Slater determinants, many electron atoms, LS coupling, jj coupling, spectroscopic notation, electronic structure and Hund's rule, and periodic table.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE225
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE305 Classical Mechanics

Newton's laws, applications, calculus of variations, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation, central force motion, Kepler's laws, collisions, Rutherford scattering, rotating coordinate systems, Coriolis force, rigid body motion, inertia tensor, and Euler's equations.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE205
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE307 Optics

Propagation of light rays in an optical system using ray matrices, light as an electromagnetic wave, polarization, linear, circular, and elliptical. Superposition, interference, thin films, Michelson interferometer, coherence: spatial and temporal, diffraction, Huygens approximation, Fraunhofer diffraction, Fourier optics, and applications. These concepts are rendered tangible by a relevant choice of laboratory experiments.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE302
- Contact Hours:
- 2 - 2 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE332 Instrumentation I

Transfer functions, Bode Plots, passive filters, periodic signals, Fourier Transforms, A/D conversion, sampling and Nyquist Theorems, ultrasonic waves and imaging.

#### Laboratory:

Use of common laboratory instruments, amplitude and phase measurements, passive filter construction, ultrasonic wave measurement, and synthetic aperture image production.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE217
- Contact Hours:
- 2 - 2 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE333 Instrumentation II

Operational amplifiers, active filters, op-amp circuits for computation, signal conditioning, convolution, sensor physics, light and temperature sensors, and instrument design.

#### Laboratory:

Introduction to Electronics Workbench, investigation of operational amplifiers and their applications, time and frequency domain filtering, properties of light and temperature sensors, design and construction of automated measurement systems.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE332
- Contact Hours:
- 2 - 2 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE350 Orbital Mechanics

Newton's laws, two-body problem in a central force field, orbit calculations, motion of an artificial satellite, orbit insertion, orbit transfers, and perturbations.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104 and MAE101
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE352 Astronomy

Introduction to fundamental concepts of astronomy and the application of astronomical techniques to space operations. Electromagnetic spectrum, measurements and distances. Earth, moon, solar system, stellar structure and evolution, and galactic structure.

- Corequisite(s):
- MAE101 and PHE104
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE355 Space Science Concepts and Applications

Application and exploration of concepts from orbital mechanics (orbits, instantaneous field-of-view, ground station visibility, link time) and mission geometry using Satellite Tool Kit. Concepts of space situational awareness, space surveillance data acquisition and analysis. Elements of space missions: intermediate subsystem concepts with basic analysis. Satellite lab. Basics of mission design. Astrodynamics, orbit maintenance and station-keeping. Navigation, satellite dynamics, attitude control. Navigation lab. Payloads and payload concepts.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE255
- Contact Hours:
- 2 - 2 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE362 Ideas and Concepts of Modern Physics

Introduction to the conceptual structure of modern physics and will include the following topics: concept of fields as introduced in electromagnetism, evolution of the statistical description of matter, ideas of relativity, introduction of the quantum hypothesis and its development, quantum interpretation of matter and the impact of the new concepts on contemporary thought.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE102 or equivalent
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE364 Physics Laboratory

This laboratory course is designed to increase the familiarity of the students with physical experimentation. Students are expected to perform a variety of different experiments in solid state physics, optics, and space physics.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE205 and PHE225 or PHE217
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 4 - 1
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE370 Introductory Synoptic Oceanography

General introduction to the oceans. The principal topics covered are: a survey of the physical properties of sea water, distribution of salinity, temperature, etc.., and their seasonal variations; circulation of the oceans;,energy budgets, oceanographic instrumentation and measurement techniques, and underwater sound velocity distributions resulting from temperature and salinity variations.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104
- Exclusion(s):
- PHE270
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 1

## Courses 400-499

### PHE403 Solid State Physics

Crystal structure, Bragg scattering and reciprocal space, bonding in solids, lattice vibrations and the specific heat of solids, energy bands, electrical and thermal conduction in solids, semiconductors, dielectric and optical properties of solids, and magnetic properties of solids.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE304
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE412 Advanced Electromagnetic Theory

Various topics in electromagnetic theory are investigated in detail. Electrostatic fields are studied with attention to continuous charge distributions, the electric dipole, electric potential, polarization and boundary conditions. Magnetic fields, magnetic dipoles, and the magnetization of materials are described in terms of the magnetic vector potential. Further topics in magnetism include magnetic torque, magnetic moment, and magnetic boundary conditions. Time varying fields are shown to lead a "displacement current" in Ampere's Law, yielding the final form of Maxwell's equations. Antenna theory is developed for simple geometries, including those of the Hertzian dipole, the half-wave dipole, the quarter-wave monopole, and the small antenna loop. Other topics in antenna theory include: antenna characteristics, arrays, effective area, and radar.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE302
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE413 Nuclear Physics

Nuclear constituents and Rutherford scattering, evidence of the nuclear force, deuteron, binding energy and the semi-empirical mass formula, nuclear stability, single-particle shell model, beta and alpha decay, gamma ray emission, fission and fusion, qualitative aspects of particle physics and quark and lepton nomenclature.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE304
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE415 Advanced Quantum Mechanics

The three dimensional square well, harmonic oscillator, zero point energy, Hermite polynomials, creation and annihilation operators, time dependent Schrédinger equation, time evolution of states and operators, Ehrenfests's principle, time dependent perturbation theory, transitions, selection rules, Fermi's golden rule, and scattering.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE304
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE420 Senior Project

The object of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to be involved in a project which requires them to assimilate knowledge gained from a variety of sources and apply it to a specific, well-defined problem. A formal report is required for presentation in the Winter Term, along with a prototype apparatus, if appropriate. Students are encouraged to seek out projects from any of the Science or Engineering Departments.

- Prerequisite(s):
- Honours Physics or permission of department
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 4 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 2

### PHE440 Selected Topics in Physics

This course will consist of two topics selected annually by the class from among the following: the physics of plasmas, statistical physics, low temperature physics, applied acoustics, introductory astrophysics, optical properties of solids, and other topics.

- Note(s):
- Permission of the department required.
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE442 Introduction to Astrophysics

The object of this course is to apply our knowledge of physics to obtain an understanding of astrophysical phenomena. The topics to be covered would be selected from: Observational Astronomy, Stars and Stellar Evolution, Galaxy Formation and Evolution, Observational Cosmology, Theory and Chronology of Big Bang, and Model of the Universe.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE225
- 3 - 0 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE445 The Physics of the Space Environment

Comprehensive introduction to the physical phenomena that result from the interaction between the sun and the earth. Examination of the basic processes of plasma physics and how it relates to the earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. Detailed study of the relevant transport equations and related coefficients, wave and chemical processes, energy deposition and transfer mechanisms.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE217 and PHE225
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE448 Spacecraft Mission Analysis and Design

Lectures and research assignments in the first term, and spacecraft design for a proposed space mission in the second term by the students working in teams. The teams are to submit a detailed report covering all aspects of the spacecraft design. This course fulfils the thesis requirement for an Honours degree. The proposed space mission is normally varied each year.

The lectures and research assignments will cover various aspects of a typical spacecraft mission such as: system design; orbital mechanics and propulsion; spacecraft subsystems - power, thermal, communications, attitude; risk management and reliability.

- Note(s):
- This course satisfies the Honours degree thesis requirement.
- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE355. Honours Space Science or permission of instructor.
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 4 - 6
- Credit(s):
- 2

### PHE450 Space Communications and Navigation

Introduction to communication between spacecraft and ground stations. Students are introduced to antenna theory: dipole antenna, antenna gain, antenna patterns, directivity and signal strength.

The theory is then applied to modulation, transmission, propagation, reception and demodulation of signals between the ground and a satellite. Fundamentals of ionospheric effects, frequency bands, communication link equations and telemetry are covered.

Space based navigation systems are examined. Topics include positioning using RF Doppler and GPS positioning. Precision navigation and surveying, personal communication systems as well as search and rescue systems are also examined. Satellite tracking is discussed.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE217
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE451 Senior Physics Laboratory

A continuation of PHE364B including experiments in magnetism, Mössbauer spectroscopy, applied optics and nuclear science.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE205 and PHE225 or PHE217
- Contact Hours:
- 0 - 4 - 2
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE452 Remote Sensing

This course provides a foundation for the theory and applications of remote sensing of the earth's surface from space. Optical, infra-red and passive and active microwave sensing systems are examined from basic electromagnetic principles, through expected surface responses and atmospheric effects, to modern satellite systems utilizing these systems. Techniques of digital image processing are developed in the context of satellite imagery. Applications of remote sensing technology to terrestrial and marine environments are discussed, highlighting topics of interest to the Canadian Forces.

Lecture material is supplemented with weekly computer laboratory exercises in image processing and in the examination of different types of satellite imagery.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE217
- Corequisite(s):
- MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 2 - 4
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE460 Computational Physics

Introduction to the solution of problems in Space Science and Physics using computational techniques. Topics will be selected from dynamics (numerical integration), data modeling and analysis (interpolation, regression), boundary value solutions, and other relevant areas.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE302
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE462 Statistical and Thermal Physics

Introduction to classical and quantum statistical ensembles. Boltzmann, Fermi and Bose distributions: ideal gases, statistical fluctuations. Principles of thermodynamics. First, second and third laws of thermodynamics, equilibrium, entropy with applications to space plasmas and solid state physics.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE225
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1

### PHE470 Physical Oceanography

The physics of the circulation of the world ocean is investigated. The principal topics covered include: the primitive equations of motion, geostrophy, baroclinic and barotropic flows, wind-driven currents (Ekman spiral), vorticity, western intensification and the thermohaline circulation. Familiarity with differential equations is recommended.

- Prerequisite(s):
- PHE104 and MAE325
- Contact Hours:
- 3 - 0 - 3
- Credit(s):
- 1